Software engineering handles the relationship between people and effort management for product development phase. These some points are as follows:-
- When software size is small single person can handle same project by performing steps like requirement analysis, designing, code generation, and testing etc.
- If the project is large additional people are required to complete. the project in stipulated in time it become easy to complete project by distributing work among people and get it done as early as possible.
- The communication path of new comer also increase as time increase and day by day the project become extra complicated. And new customer gets confusion become more after the days by days.
- It is possible to reduce a desire project completion date by getting more people to same point. It also possible to expand the completion date by reducing number of resources. And you can mention for the date of completion.
- The Putnam Norden Rayleigh (PNR) curve is an indication of relationship which exists between effort applied and delivery time for software project.
- The curve indicate a minimum time value at to which indicates test cost time for delivery as use move to left to right. It is observed that curved raised non-linearly.
- It is possible to make delivery fast; the curve rises very sharply to left of td. The pnr curve indicates that project delivery time should not be compressed much behind on td.
- The number of delivery lines of code are also known as source statements L. Relationship of L with effort & development time by equation can be described as
L= P * E1/3 T ¾
Here ‘E’ represents development effort in person months, P is productivity
- After rearranging the last equation can arrive at an expansion for development effort e.
E = L3/(P3 T4)
E is called as effort expanded over entire life cycle for software development and maintenance
T is the development period in years. And this equation is lead to
E = L3 / (P3 T4) ~ 3.8 Person years.
This shows that by extending last date of project with six month e.g. we can reduce the no of people from eight to four. The outcome benefit can be gained by using less number of people over longer time to achieve the same objective.
These are all about the relationship between people and effort in software engineering.
Description of People and process management spectrum
People management capability maturity model (PM-CMM) has been developed by software engineering institute.
The people management capability maturity model defines following key practice area for software people:-
- Team / culture development
- Carrier development
It guides organizations in a creation of mature software process. The various groups are involved for the most needed communication and co-ordination issue required for any effective software. These groups can be categorized as under:-
1) Stake holder: – Those people who are involved in software process and every software project. Stake holder can be senior manager, project manager practitioner’s customer and end user.
2) Team leader: – The MOI model of leadership state characteristics that define and effective project manager motivation, organization and ideas. Successful project leaders use problem solving strategy.
3) Software team:- The people directly involved in a software project are within the software project manager scope seven project factor should be considered when planning structure of software engineering team these are as follows:-
- Difficult of problem to be solved.
- Size of resultant program.
- Time that team will stay together.
- The rigidity of a delivery date.
- The degree of communication required for project.
4) Agile teams: it is very active team which is a very small highly motivated project team consist of a informal method which result into overall development simplicity. These are all about the people description.
A comprehensive plan for a software development can be established from a software process framework. A number of a different task based milestone, work product and quality assurance points enables the frameworks activity to be adapted to characteristics of a software project. The frame work activity that characteristics the software processes are applicable to all software projects. The problem is to be selected process model that is appropriate for software to be a engineered by a software team.
The project manager must decide which process mode is appropriate for:
1) Customer who has a request product
2) the characteristics of product
3) the project environment.
Once the primary plan is established process decomposition begins a complete plan reflecting work task required to populate to require to framework activities must be created. These are all about process.
A software team should have extent of adaptability in choosing the software process model which is a best for a project and engineering task. A relatively small project might be a best accomplished using linear frequent approach. If very tight time constraints are imposed then problem can be a heavily compartmentalization RAD model. Project with other characteristics will lead to the selection of a other process model. Once a process model and process framework is decided then generic communication framework communication, planning, modeling, construction and deployment can be used. It will works for a linear model for iterative and incremental model, for evolutionary model and for concurrent or concurrent assembly models.
Process decomposition commence when the project manager asks how we accomplish the actual activity. Process decomposition is appropriate for the small relatively and a simple project for it. It should be noted work task s must be adapted to specific need of a project. These are about the process decomposition in the software engineering for product development activities.